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tv   Charlie Rose  PBS  October 31, 2014 12:00am-1:01am EDT

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>> rose: welcome to the program. we begin this evening with neil young. need i say more. >> my biggest memory of wood stock is okay everybody's really excited and all of these heavy musicians are walking around. we're just starting to get a foot hold and hendricks is there and some of the stones are there and other bands were there we knew were great bands. we look around and wow we haven't seen this many people at a show before, like half a million people. when it happened for the first time, it was something special because there you were and there were half a million people and we're realizing we're a generation. we are somebody. >> rose: we continue this evening with philippe de montebello and martin gayford. their book is called rendezvous with art. >> the thing about this book is
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it really make the ultimate viewer of art i think relax and not feel guilty about things. one does feel out of love. there are also moments when one is indifferent to a work that once add immense impact. and another day, it strikes you again. we are all different, the work of art changes according to our mood, our response a lot of people around it, a lot of noise, whatever the mood one is in. so it's nothing fixed. >> rose: we conclude this evening with "new york times" columnist nicholas kristof and his wife sheryl wudunn, their book is called a path appears. >> there are efforts to help others. frankly it's a director's success. they have almost a perfect record helping ourselves. not only making us happier but leaving us with better markers of physical health. >> rose: neil young, philippe de montebello, martin gayford, nicholas kristof and sheryl
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wudunn when we continue. >> rose: additional funding made possible by: >> and by bloomberg, a provider of multimedia news and information services worldwide. captioning sponsored by rose communications from our studios in new york city, this is charlie rose. >> rose: neil young is here. consider him one of the most influential singer songwriters in american history. his iconic career spans more than five decades. he's famous for his distinctive voice, artful lyric and uncompromising vision. he's releasing his 35th studio
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album this month. it is called storytone. here's a look at the first single, who is going to stand up. ♪ fossil fuel build the line fracking now ♪ let's save the water and fill the life for our sons and daughters ♪ who is going to stand up and save the earth, who is going to stand up we've had enough ♪ who is going
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to stand up and save the earth ♪ this all starts with you and me ♪ >> rose: neil young has just published his second memoir, it is called super deluxe and he covers everything from his love of cars and painting to his crusade for mother earth. i'm pleased to have him back at this table. how are you doing for your crusade of the environment. >> the earth is, and i, i am, my friends who are on the same trip as i'm on, and there are many of them, feel that the earth is a huge, it's like a huge ship that we need to turn around and take in a different direction or we're going don't want to hit. >> rose: there are many things i love about you. one is the curiosity of your mind, a.
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and beyond the talent. look at the things that you're doing. your memoir, two years after the waging heavy pace, you've got a new memoir, correct. >> yes. >> rose: i have it right here. a memoir of liking cars. we'll talk about the cars. this new painting when i saw the exhibition. and that's an example of what we talk about. another album called storytone which incorporates a 92-piece orchestra. what else is it. jack white. you and jack white have another thing. >> yeah. >> rose: what's the operative philosophy here? take it where it takes you. >> yes. i'm just doing the things i think i should do. a lot of what i do now is based on trying to get some value out of some lasting value out of the rest of my life and the notoriety that i've managed to get. i don't want to just waste it
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all on a downhill slope of people magazine covers and stuff. i want to do something with my notorietyyd since somebody knows who i am, i want to say something that i think matters and let the chips fall where they may. i don't really have anything to lose. i'm just not like a career move or not a career move or anything. i just want to do something that represents the thoughts of a lot of people who don't have a voice. >> rose: the love affair with cars has been with you for a while. >> uh-huh. since as long back as i can remember, you know, from my dad's first car which i thought was a great thing. every car i ever looked at actually i'm curious about. i find that they all have stories to tell. they're all full of memories of people and places they've been and things that have happened in them. when you see a nice looking car that's in a junk yard you wonder why is it in a junk yard, what
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happened to it. if you look at it long enough you might be able to find some clues. i used to go to a lot of young cars and look at them. >> rose: then you started painting. is that recent. >> yes, very recent just like two years ago i started painting. i just started watercolors. >> rose: you started painting per se or just started painting cars. >> just painting cars. >> rose: take a look at this. this is a 1951 monarch sedan. this is your dad's car. >>ethe second one i can remember him having. the first one was a 48 or 47, but this one's a 51. it's a pretty nice car. >> rose: the next one is a 1948 buick road master a morris. >> this is the first vehicle i owned and i got it for 125 bucks out of a funeral home, they had
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a bunch of cars in the back, you know. they were selling them. i went in there and there were two of them and they were identical. one had the blue interior and one had the red interior so i took the one with the blue interior. >> rose: the next one is your link bolt. look at that, that's a fine art. >> that's a very special car. it's taken me a™veqt of places. i drove that car all the way across the country without using any gasoline, if you can imagine that. it was known for not being able to go very far without stopping at a gas station. >> rose: it never operates on ethanol and batteries. >> it operates on electric motor and a battery system. and it has an ethanol generator which doesn't affect the food supply at all. it's made from the waste of food. so it doesn't have any negative impacts on anything except oil
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companies. >> rose: that's okay with you. >> well you know, i think it's time to move on. >> rose: tell me about storytone. >> storytone is a record of new songs. >> rose: orchestral. >> it's an orchestral record of sorts and also a big band record. there are some big band things onbz it and that's pretty excitg for me because you know, i've never done anything like that before. and plus on this record, i only played harmonica, i just stood there like frank sinatra or somebody and sang like that video showed. i found that singing that way was very freeing experience without having to think about anything else, you know. not thinking about my chord changes or the rhythm or how i was singing against the guitar iano.
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i'm kind of a mediocre piano player so i have to think about the right chords, the right ones are always on my mind. if i don't have any of that to think about, i'm thinking wow hey. 60 instruments and 32 voices for a couple songs. three or four of the songs are that big and the other ones, there's a 50 piece brass band for one of the songs. >> rose: what is this thing you have which you want to revolutionize digital music. >> tono is the hawaiian word for righteous, the one. >> rose: what is tono. >> it isd just a little player and a huge ecosystem supported by the player called tonoworld. and you go to this place and right now we're still ingesting tracks and will be ingesting for months. we're going through a million and-a-half tracks right now in our library of hey rez music.
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these are all the songs everybody knows except now you can hear all of it instead of just a small percentage of it. when the mp3 is capable of producing. >> rose: you think digital music has done what to music? >> it's certainly made it into a content. it's content known, not music. it's content. you know. and it's consumer content. so in music, it's not the feeling and the whole thing, it's consumer content. it's almost like there's lemmings in here with cheese. what's that. music is supposed to make me feel something. i want goose bumps, i want to close my eyes and feel the universe and see things. feel people's hearts. music is a great language. peopleand for us to be here in e
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21st century with all of our technology and have this recorded sound, have it take such a dump. i mean it's down to 5% what our files hold or are capable of. >> rose: i assume then you're very approving of the return to vinyl. >> vinyl is great. but there are a lot of things about vinyl that people don't know today. >> rose: like what. >> many times vinyl is created from the digital masters that make cds so you're never going to have any more sound on vinyl that's on the cd. the cd actually plays back the cd track better than the vinyl. the vinyl colors them. if the vinyl is pressed from an original analogue master because vinyl, the thing that most people don't know is analogue music is a reflection. it's like if you're looking up mount shasta and you look at lake shasta and it's a calm day
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mount shasta is upside down but everything is there. but the track is a reconstitution of the track. it's samples everything. the more samples you have the clearer it is. the more zap pulls in the music the clearer the music sound. that's what we try to do is get the sampling rate to people here up to the sampling rate that's possible to use in the studio for the musicians who want to use it. >> rose: this is what you once said i think it was the rolling stone. talking about the past. it drags me down. i want to be as creative as i was when i started to be as free as that. but you seem to me to be as free as that because you're always been creative and that's why i laid out all these things you're experimenting with and doing. >> the past is like a giant overcoat you know and sometimes you have to put it on to gosomewhere. and when you're wearing the coat, everybody knows who you are but if you take it off from just hanging up somewhere and
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>> rose: does it inhibit you the past. >> no, i just don't like dealing with it all the time. it's over. >> rose: these are the questions we ask people what are you most curious about. this is interesting. what part of your life was the biggest waste and how crucial was that experience to your overall accomplishments. that will meek you think. >> which part was the biggest waste. >> rose: and how crucial is that experience to what you have done. >> well ... that's huge. >> rose: i know. >> that's huge, because there is, you know, we live with our decisions. you know. we live with the decisions we make and they have consequences and you can't really see into the future. and you can see the past but as we just said there's no reason to discuss it because there's nothing you can do about it. so we're really just here now,
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this is it. i feel like you know, this thing about being here now is incredibly important, and right now as i'm here, imy mind that . and so that's what i really try to do. >> rose: while you're living this life right now this moment. >> yes, right now this moment. this moment in my life and this moment in all of our lives. i just like to be in it and try to do what makes sense to me now. >> rose: i never had you or ask you to talk much about how you saw yourself and dylan. >> bob is a hero of mine since being a kid, you know. because his songs are so great. >> rose: he said the same thing about you. >> you know, that's amazing that he does. and whenever he says, you know, i'm always flabbergasted to think that. but i know that i've done some
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things but i really respect what he's done and i respect the way he's true to his muse. he's not tried to be anything other than him. and he has not been bending to do things. and quite often has done things that have made people wonder what's going on, you know. reinventing his own songs in ways that are totally unrecognizable. and then abandon thing playing guitar and starting to play piano and doing that and doingl. but one of the great things about bob is his choice of musicians. and you know, he chooses some really great musicians, and they are subtle. i mean they're not like, you know, his bands are really great for his music. and he's truly a great guitar player which people don't really recognize. but he's so overshadows. his songs so overshadow like everything that you know, in my
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view. people don't realize what a great singer he is, what a great guitar player he is, how he puts together great bands, what a wonderful performer. >> rose: you primarily think of him as a poet. >> yes, he's a great poet. so yes, he's one of my heroes. >> rose: talk to me a little bit though about woodstock. >> i can only talk to you a little bit about it, because i was so, i was, i actually was there but i didn't, my biggest memory of woodstock is okay, everybody's really excited. and you know all these heavy musicians are walking around ask we're starting to get a foot hold and hendrix is there and some of the stones are there and other bands were there we knew were great bands. you're looking around going wow never seen this many people at a show before like half a million people. and when it happened for the first time, it was something special because there you were and there were half a million people and we're just realizing
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we are a generation, we are somebody. you know. and it's right now. and we are somebody. we're making a difference. all these people are with us so the music is like part of that. the music is not a commodity or a content. music is the life of the thing and you're singing your songs and people are listening and it's going back and forth. it's like one big thing. about that. the thing about it that wasn't so beautiful to me was the filming. i thought that these guys with their cameras all over the stage were like in the way of the music and the people. they were a distraction. we're playing and they're right here you know with a camera going like this. so i told them don't come near me, i have a very heavy guitar. if you come near me i'll hit you with it. don't come to my part of the stage don't let me see you. >> rose: did they stay away.
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>> yes, they did. they kept their distance from me. i weighed 110 pounds at the time so i was not much of a threat. but i was intense. and i felt like you know that's how i felt about the music. the music was for us and this thing was in between it. and i think that is the beginning of what it is about, what's happening that is in the way. the fact that it can be filmed and it was changed in the videos and all these things happened. everything, although it made it bigger and more popular kind of or more of a commodity or something. it took away the essence ofsomething, made it ae instead of a sound. >> rose: you want a world whether there's only live music. >> i don't mind the technology but that's be right, let's not disturb. it's like going into a garden and walking all over the plants
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and standing on a couple plants and seeing one plant you like and say okay we'll shoot that instead of going let's get outside the garden and use long lenses and set ourselves up and we can get right in there if we take our time and do it right. everything is still standing. we leave it like we found it and capture it like people watch the planets grow, whatever it is they want. >> rose: how often do you have those experiences. you've kept the faith. the music. >> i try. i try. >> rose: have you failed. >> yes, i fail sometimes. everybody fails sometimes. >> rose: when you fail how do you fail. >> i get distracted, thing get in the way. >> rose: things get in the way. >> yes, i think so. i feel that way. i feel that way is what it is. that's what it is. >> rose: feeling is crucial
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isn't it. >> it really is. >>eand have always been. >> i like to try to be there. i don't want to be distracted by my thoughts when i'm doing something, you know, you're creating something. the last thing you want to hear from is your commentator, the guy inside your head going well that's pretty good. i don't like that. you know. you don't want that guy. you never know when that's going to show up. i'm out there playing my guitar in front of thousands of people and i'm trying to get into a groove but he's with me tonight. what the hell are you doing here. i go god, and i come off dij and i go the manager or elliott or somebody says to me that was good. i had my commentator with me all night tonight. a very big distraction to me. >> rose: he's out there headed for me. >> predicting what i'm going to do next. i hate that. you're singing and you're into
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it a hundred percent and you're hitting the last verse and you're feeling good and you forgot what you're doing everything's great and what's next. the commentator says what's the next song. then you start thinking about the next song before you're finished with the last one. most nights i keep that guy out of the show. it's like the weather. you can't control the weather. >> rose: when they write the first line of your obituary a hundred years from now, what would it say? what do you want it to say. >> thank you.
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this planet. >> rose: no fracking. >> let's, you know, those are just symptoms of the problem. let's get rid of corporate control of government and democracy. let's start with things that are planning for our grandchildren. let's plan for an earth that is going to be healthy, you know. that's what i want to do. that's what i'm trying to do. i got nothing else to do charlie, that's all i got, you know. people, humanity,planet. that's it. it just became more and more obvious, the longer i did what i was doing and the more i saw things and i traveled around the world the last couple years looking at things going this is not going to work. you can see it's not going to work. you can tell. there's only like i'll try not to digress into too many facts because where are you.
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facts. so they, so ... oh gosh. we're like 10% of the fish we had inwe've got half of the anin the planet that we had in 1970. we can't go forward with that math. it doesn't work for our grandchildren. it's easy. we've got to change thins -- things and i want to tell people about the things they can do. do you know germany, that country from world war ii and everything a lot of people think well we beat germany, you know, america. but that's ancient history. now we have germany with 50% renewable energy. and the united states we have people in congress talking about well, maybe by 2020 we could be 3% renewable energy but you
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can't get rid of fossil fuels. you can't just replace them because there's nothing to replace them with. over in germany 50% renewable energy 2014. why is that? what happened to america leading the world. >> rose: what do you think happened? >> well, i think corporations took over america. i don't think they want to saw doing what they're doing because for the next threeci months that they keep doing it, it's going to be more value and that's really what our problem is. >> rose: all this sprang from love. >> yeah. i love this planet. >> rose: in other words everything that's motivated what you just said comes from the idea you love the planet so much. >> yes, that's it. that's the whole thing. so i even wrote a song before i knew what it meant, which is the way most of my songs are. and this one is called standing in the light of love. so the things that i say, i want to be there. that's where i want to be. i want to say it with that.
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and there's of anger in what i think because i'm trying to think what about the other 50% of the animals, the one that aren't there anymore. what about the species that are extinct. we're in the largest age of extinction in the planet's history right now. we need leaders to feel like we need a leader who feels like that. we need somebody really badly. we have an election coming up and we don't have anybody. there's nobody. >> rose: in terms of 2016 for president. >> yes. >> rose: nobody. >> there's nobody that any of the things, they go to world conferences and no one speaks up and talks about the world. they don't talk, they talk about the squirmishes between the countries and how will we deal with that and what about isis and this and that and the internal things and that's fine. that's part of taking care of business. but it's a earth summit, world
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summit, let's talk about that. >> rose: there's not enough action. >> it's very small. action has to come from the people. it starts from the bottom. the people are becoming aware their day to day life is becoming affected by the people at the top this don't listen to them. i don't mean to sound like a revolutionary or somebody like that i just don't think i am. i think i'm a human being but i do see this andkx i feel it on e street and you see it in the farmers, you see it everywhere. farmers no longer have the freedom to choose what feeds they use. this is america. farmers don't have the freedom to chooses what feeds they'll put in the grounds and motorists on the federal interstate system don't have any choice of fuels to burn because nothing is available but fossil fuels. on the federal interstate system, that we paid for, we built and with our taxes, and i
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say our because i pay a lot of taxes for many years even though i'm a canadian. and we have the leader of the free world in the whitehouse and i'm in the free world. that's how i look at it. but regardless of that, that's for anybody that thinks that canadians shouldn't talk about america. i disagree and i feel that we really have to come together and make it so people have freedom of choice. so they have that feeling that they're doing something good. you can make a choice. if there was one alternative fuel at a gas station, out of every six pumps if there was one green pump. >> rose: competition. >> yes. what if everybody lined up at the green pump. that's why theyñu don't want te green pump. and how about this one. >> rose: it's not the market because it's not a choice. >> there's no choice. how can it be a market. you can't. and this is the federal interstate monopoly, okay. that doesn't go together.
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it's not freedom. it's not right. it's just not. it's just not american. unamerican. that's how i feel about it. >> rose: i'm thrilled to have you here. >> thank you. >> rose: back in a moment. stay with us. >> rose: how do we look at art. why do we look at art. these eternal questions are the focus of a new book by former metropolitan museum of art. it is called ronald view with art. the pair visited the most important paintings. with me in phlegm de montebello and martin gayford. you look at the magic of art and understand it and appreciate it more and you do it through this dialogue between the two of you and you do it in such an interesting way. who started this? whose idea was this.
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>> i suppose the idea e vaulted? first of all we met and we were at a restaurant over the seine from the louvre. we've got a couple chapters. and we started off we thought we'd have conversations about what is a museum. and then philippe i think suggested it be more fun and fresher to just go to galleries and respond to the works as we were partners. >> that's true. because i tend to look at museums as containers of groups of arts. and the contents interested me more than the container. so we looked at art and we talked about it. we would discuss it. and the whole idea is that our reactions, our response to works of art were things that could be translated at least in part into words and conceivably helpful, useful for the reader. >> rose: did the two of you find that there's some basic
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difference in how you approach this or how you approach art or did you find out surprising things about each other in your reaction to art? >> we certainly have different taste, different responses to individual works of art. but on the whole, you know, there's, we did stay pretty much with very high quality works in the prado and the louvre and the british museum. museums in holland and florence and so we went experimental in terms of the works that we were seeking out except perhaps with antiquities. >> possibly the book started philippe was showing me around the met and we had a very full load and we werejz looking at te wonderful things and philippe
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turns around, i discovered he had some sort of secret designation he had in mind. he took me to the egyptian galleries and stopped in front of the fragment of yellow gespo just the woman's lips and he says this is one of the most greatest works of art in the world. >> i did. it's one of the great works of art in the world.it is, it's ant that speaks to us through 3,000 years of history and right there in front of you. and part of the magic of it is its fragmentary condition. first of all what is there. obviously the work as a result of immense skill, sensitivity and imagination. what i love about it is the notion of the fragment and what is surprising about the fragment is that in the end the fragment is what lasts and the whole is ephemeral. >> rose: you said you might not be thrilled if the top of
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the head were restored to the piece. the fact that the top of head is not there is part of its greatness. >> for me it is. at least having looked at it. it's a little bit like the character in a book that you love. and in a way you don't wantpw a movie made, you don't want the testing is wrong, it's not the image you have in your mind of that particular character. in my mind's eye probably different from what existed. n't thinking about the top of the head the lips are so accomplished. >> rose: the second one is the detail of the statute of bhuta. why is this on the selection. >> obviously our assumption was that no matter how scholarly you are and how much information you have about art, in the end the reaction's personal and it might have to do with love. it's an emotional thing. one day i asked philippe what was the first work of art you ever fell in love with.
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>> rose: and this is what he said. >> the answer was this is the first work of art i fell in love with. i think the first woman i fell in love with, i think i was 13 or 14 when the voices of museum without walls, a fabulous black and white, and in it with as this image. and i was bowled over by it, fell in love with her. looked at the high collar, very dashing, the eyñhci fell in lovd pursued it obviously not as a woman but i want to look at other works of art. this is from the gothic period. and my love from medieval art. >> rose: do you ever fall out of love with a piece of art. >> yes. this is an interesting thing. the good things about this book is it will make the all mother viewer of art i think relaxed
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and not feel guilty about things. one does feel out of love. there are also moments when one is indifferent to a work that once had immense impact. and another day it will strike you again. the work of art changes, there are a lot of people around it, the noise, whatever the mood one is in. so there's nothing fixed it's a sliding frame here. >> rose: so it's different to look at a piece of art when there's an empty room and nobody's there like after the museum is closed than when it's bustling. >> it's a rare thing. you want as many people popular looking at art but not with you. >> well museums, public museums are an 18th century invention. now in the 21st century more and more people want to see
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particularly certain style works. often sometimes the sistine chapel is absolutely packed. >> rose: all right. the next one is the rezzo. >> certainly we must go -- surely not probably a thousand people in line in front of it. i said i like the museum in florence, not enough people go to and wexq will be probably alone. >> rose: what do you say about this. >> it's a work that strikes immediately and fiercity of the animal and precise and delicate almost like a goldsmith so you have a paradox. it's also the 4th century b.c. it survived in beautiful condition. it has wonderful presence you
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stand in front and it's like it's going to leap out. >> rose: the next one is fragment -- >> which is a greek vase of thh century. i tell my reader it's okay you don't understand certain things you are indifferent to thing everybody else loves. right in the book for years i hated it. every time i approached the gallery full of greek vases i wanted to run away they were black and brown and red. one of our curators one day said let me teach you how to look. she said you collect drawings you love drawings. i said yes. so she took me to fragments to little shards and said now look at this as if it were a drawing on/ paper. look at the image. it's not a vessel. not something utilitarian. i said yes what a beautiful drawing it is. now just imagine it in three dimensional vessel and little by little i began to approach vases
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completely different way. >> rose: do you have anything to say about this one? >> well, the experience of even the director of the museum can make discoveries. >> rose: yes, exactly. can understand something that he previously had no great interest. the next one is madonna and the child. >> this was one of philippe's when he was director. my question about it was really how the work get into museums. somebody has to make a decision, somebody has to decide this belongs in the museum or it doesn't belong. and philippe had that responsibility. >> rose: it's the most expensive purchase ever. >> i don't know that. well it's certainly one of the most expensive purchases in terms of dollars, in terms of converted dollars over time and inflation, i don't know. but certainly possibly --
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>> rose: 45 million. >>hh and possibly per centimete. it's a relatively small painting but the last painting by the master. there are no others known and recorded and for us it was extremely important. it is also an immensely beautiful work and it mark the transition. >> rose: the next one is the swing. take a look at this. you love this just in terms of sheer beauty. >> it's wonderful because it's so uncomplicated. it's exactly what you're looking at. it's a wonderful frivolous picture of the 18th century, it is erotic and revealing. what he's looking up at not necessarily the swing. like a theatre set. and once in a while it's very nice not to have to plum depths
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of very deep emotion. >> it was part of an afternoon so we saw it in london. we walked up the stairs with marbles and very rich wall papers and all of these paintings. philippe just drank them in and he said how this sort of decor really works. >> rose: it's the regime at the time. okay, the next one. >> this is i want to quote monet the great french 19th century impressionist said was the greatest one who live. he's an astonishing artist who translates paint into life into truth at a level of dignity of the human person. this is@ç shown with enormous
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empathy. and the quality of the paint and the surface that is simply miraculous. >> i have to agree. it's fabulous. perhaps we have slight differences in nuance. to philippe, he's to many people the very greatest painter. i might suggest rembrandt but this is a masterpiece. >> rose: you said i think also that the face, the face of this subject seems as alive in this painting today as 350 years ago. >> it is looking at us. >> rose: there is a gaze. >> yes, looking up. he was looking straight through to the whole future.
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and the miracle of able to face himself and allows him to speak to us across time and space. >> rose: why isn't there more contemporary art in this book. >> they didn't make the cut. we did go to agwe went to madri. >> there's no islamic art which is a passion of mine. there's no medieval part. the book is serendipitous and where our agendas fit. i want them for a lecture so he flew over from london. we didn't happen upon it. i would like to speak about this painting which i adore, matisse, so on and so forth. >> that's another reason -- >> rose: this is just logistics. >> a lot of it was logistics. we tried to put some order into it and in a sense there's a certain coherence because we're doing a great deal of antiquity.
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>> rose: have you changed in any way your attitude about contemporary art. >> all art was contemporary when it was created and contemporary art is exists and i'm fascinated by it. whether i'm as profoundly moved by a lot of things that are made today as by another time, probably not. but when you say contemporary, i mean now. >> rose: right. >> i don't consider modern art or even late matisseú newyork, contemporary to me ths modern art's very different. contemporary with a capital c is what is being done now. >> rose: the book is called rendezvous with art. philippe de montebello and martin gayford, thank you for coming. it's a great experience to feel and understand that when you look at a piece of art so much goes into it. and it gives you an informed sense of what has turned on two people about the joy of looking
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art and understanding art. back in a moment. stay with us. >> rose: nicholas kristof and sheryl wudunn are here. they became the first married couple to win a pulitzer prize for tiananmen square. it's the moral challenge today. bill clinton says no one -- or the moral imperative to help meet them. the latest book looked at the art and science of giving. it is called a path appears. i am pleased to have nicholas kristof and sheryl wudunn back at this table. welcome. >> thank you. >> rose: tell me how this came before because we were talking beforehand and we both acknowledged there is a lot of people who want to do good and some have the resource to make the contribution and they really don't know how. >> there is a path, that's right
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and it's appearing. our last book was about em empowerment and sheryl and i spoke about that and most people were saying what can i do. there's a yearning of people to find an element of purpose or meaning or make a difference in the world. or equality seems so brand of one individual. people wonder what can one individual do. and it seems to us there is no evidence about what we can do,s% that one individual can't solve the problem in its entirety but can one individual make a powerful difference transforming a life others. absolutely. >> rose: so what's in the book. >> there are many things. first of all we take on the fact that there is a growing gap between the rich and the poor. i mean now a recent survey has shown one of the greatest threats to our country, american belief is growing in equality. but there actually are ways and nick said it's such a great problem.
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the role of the individual is extremely important and there's a lot of new evidence-based strategies that point to some effectiveness such as starting early. we know there's been poverty. we've tried to remedy poverty but what happened we may be intervening too late. we've got to start really early, almost in infancy. >> rose: did this book come about because you realized there was a they had for this or because you saw something that you said we have to figure out a way to do something about this issue. >> both. i mean, it was a labor of love. and something we believe in. but you look around america or you look around the world and you see huge needs. we believe that basic afo"13wwey here and abroad. >> rose: the new biology of gift. what's that. >> the neurobiology of giving,
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we had our brains scanned because we wanted to see what happens in the brain when you actually get compared to when you get. and it turns out these two researchers have looked at lots of subjects and they discovered that when you give, it stimulates a pert part of the brain that is exactly the same, the nucleus that is stimulated when you indulge in pleasures like eating candy or eating ice cream or flirting or falling in love. it's the pleasure center. and they also discovered that half of research subjects actually fell more intense pleasure when they gave than when they got. >> rose: you hear that from parents who have a kid that is challenged in some way. they'll say he's given me so much more than i've given. >> that's a really basic thing. sheryl has seen this over and over. there are efforts to help other. there's mixed record of success. they had almost a perfect record of helping ourselves and not
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only making it happen here but really leaving us with better markers of physical health. >> rose: ebola. give me your assessment today when yourq write about it and i read your columns. you're critical in some ways about the management of this as others are. give me where you think we are today after the presence -- after we've begun to learn more and seen the horror. >> there's mismanagement at every level at every place. but we're not going to have a broad epidemic in the u.s. nigeria can manage there and senegal can manage there and previously if uganda can then the united states request. can on the other hand the way to protect ourselves is not to build higher walls the way to protect ourselves is to end at crises at its worse and right now it is getting worse in those west african countries, there's a
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really risk it's going to spread to mali and ivory coast. it's doubling every two to four weeks, then the more it's going to come right back here. if it gets to india, bangladesh, then it will be a catastrophe. >> on the other hand although people have been worried about what that has done is raised awareness about the issue. >> rose: accelerated the -- >> some working on ebola very early on they say no one cares about this issue because it's in africa. we can't get people to donate or interested or excited about this. now people are excited. i think that will help if you can redirect the anger and frustration. >> we would have been so much better off stopping this in march or april. and would i better off stopping it now. >> rose: are there restrictions of people coming into the country. >> i don't think we need more restrictions. what we do need is much more awareness among americans that
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thingoaround the world really do affect us and that's why in a path appears we talk about that specifically we have to raise awareness what's going on in the rest of the world the divide between the rich and poor and you didn't advertisetance yourself from the poor. there's research when you become wealthy you actually look at poor people as objects not as people. you can stop doing that because things that happened, even in the developing world in poor areas are actually can very much affect us. >> rose: no one has been more in terms of pointing the finger at the horror of child slavery and child abuse. are we making any progress because of the flags that you have been waving in your column. >> there are still 60 million children primary school age who are out of school. i mean that's disastrous. but it used to be quite recently more than a hundred million and there's way more progress. in terms of six trafficking not
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everybody would agree. i think there has been progress both abroad and at home. partly because impunity has ended. if you traffic a girl these days, whether it's this boston or in india, you will probably get away with it. but there is some risk in a way that was not true ten yearsiand- >> rose: what changes? >> i think it was really awareness. )x
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is there an issue that you think is growing?
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one of the few issue the democrats and republicans might be able to make joint head way to work with the other in ways that would actually make this country more fair, more equitable, great opportunities. >> when you actually try what happens in the development of the brain with what happens with the public investment in education, it's a mismatch. so for instance the fastest development of the brain occurs between zero and five, eight, zero and five. by five yes of course the brain continues to shape and be holded but at a much slower rate. our public investment in education starts at kindergarten five and-2 up and gets progressively larger. >> rose: that's what we need to focus more on. >> and it's also cheaper at that stage. >> rose: you said a path appears is good news at a time when we see very bad and difficult stories and other issues. so here's a place to understand not only how you can transform live but create opportunities. thank you. good seeing you again. >> thank you very much. >> rose: thank you for joining us.
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see you next time. for more about this program and early episodes visit us on-line at pbs.org and charlierose.com.u
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>> announcer: explore new worlds and new ideas through programs like this, made available for everyone through contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> dr. tanzi: simply put, you need to realize that you are not your brain. that's right. you are not your brain. you are the user of your brain. your brain serves you. you shouldn't be serving it. >> announcer: dr. rudy tanzi is a professor of neurology at harvard university and director of the genetics and aging research unit at massachusetts general hospital. >> dr. tanzi: you need to become the master of your brain. you need to balance all three parts of your brain so that they work in perfect harmony and

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